“‘You say I betrayed the Party? I did worse than that: I betrayed the Revolution. I betrayed the Revolution when I embraced the bureaucratism of the General Secretary and helped build a whole new ruling class to oppress the workers and peasants. I betrayed the Revolution when I accepted the General Secretary’s anti-Marxist, anti-Leninist formulation of socialism in one country. I betrayed the Revolution when I stayed silent as the General Secretary purged the Party of those who made the Revolution. I betrayed the Revolution when I signed denunciations I knew to be untrue. I betrayed the Revolution in every moment of my service to this reactionary, counter-revolutionary faction of sycophants, self-seekers and traitors to the People. I have been a willing part of the General Secretary’s faction and I am justly condemned for all its crimes – though not for the ludicrous charges in your indictment. So do your worst, and I will see you all, every one of you, including you, Dzhugashvili, in hell.’ Closing statement of Grigory Ivanov, former Commissar of Light Industry, at his show trial in Moscow, 24 December 1938.” Pencil sketch.